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Pitanja odgovori: HIV i korona virus (COVID-19)

Situacija se brzo razvija, i informacije se konstantno ažuriraju. Poslednje ažuriranje

Ako ste HIV specijalista, specijalista infektivnih bolesti, doktor, medicinska sestra, radnik ili aktivista u nevladinoj organizaciji, možete naći više preciznijih informacija na stranici Clinical-COVID-19. Poslednje ažurirano

Idite na Clinical-COVID-19

COVID-19 je respiratorna bolest uzrokovana novootkrivenim SARS-CoV-2 korona virusom. Ovaj novi virus koji je otkriven u Vuhanu, u Kini, u decembru 2019, proširio se po celom svetu.

According to the latest data, you can only get coronavirus through the drops that the COVID-19 patient secretes during sneezing or coughing.

It is known that the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) can be detected in aerosols (small drops) for up to three hours, on copper (for example coins) - for up to four hours, on cardboard - for up to 24 hours, on plastic and stainless steel - for up to two to three days.

Detecting a virus, for example, on plastic for up to 3 days, does not mean that you can get infected through plastic, because the amount of virus on its surface is not enough to infect you.

If you know or suspect that a person who has become ill with COVID-19 may have been in close contact with clothing, bedding, food, etc., it is recommended to wash the items thoroughly.

Najčešći simptomi Kovida 19 su:

  • Groznica
  • Umor
  • Suv kašalj

Dodatno, neki pacijenti mogu da osete:

  • Bolni udovi
  • Glavobolja
  • Nazalno začepljenje ili curenje iz nosa
  • Upaljeno grlo
  • Gubitak mirisa i/ili ukusa
  • Dijareja

Na osnovu trenutnih informacija, simptomi se mogu pojaviti od 3 do13 dana nakon infekcije. Prosečni inkubacioni period (period od infekcije do pojave simptoma) je oko 5 dana.

Kod 80% nosilaca virusa, simptomi su u blagoj formi.

Oko 20% zahteva hospitalizaciju.

Oko 5% zahteva intenzivnu negu.

Oko 2.3% zahteva mehaničku ventilaciju.


Trenutno, procenjuje se da je stopa smrtnosti od Kovida 19 oko 3-4%, što je manje nego za SARS (oko 11%) ili MERS (oko 35%), ali je veća od stope za sezonski grip (koja je u proseku 0.1%).

Stariji ljudi (preko 65 godina) se automatski smatraju da su pod povećanim rizikom, kao i ljudi bilo koje starosne dobi sa već postojećim medicinskim stanjima, uključujući:

  • Lung disease (including asthma, COPD (chronic bronchitis or emphysema)),
  • Heart disease (including coronary heart disease and congenital heart disease) and high blood pressure,
  • Diabetes,
  • Any condition or treatment that weakens the immune response (cancer, cancer treatment, organ or bone marrow transplantation, immunosuppressants, HIV with high viral load and/or CD4 count below 200 cells/μl).

Ovo je novi virus i naša saznanja o njemu brzo napreduju, ipak trenutno ne postoje dokazi da su ljudi koji žive sa HIV-om pod povećanim rizikom od infekcije.

Zdravorazumski rečeno, svako sa visokim brojem kopija virusa u krvi i/ili ispod 200 ćelija/μ je u većem riziku od oportunističkih infekcija. Ako Vam je dijagnostifikovan HIV i niste još na terapiji, obratite se vašem infektologu radi otpočinjanja lečenja.

No, if your CD4 count is above 350 cells/μL.

If your CD4 count is below 350 cells/μL, then the latest data indicates that people living with HIV are three times more likely to experience severe COVID-19 symptoms. Also, the risks of developing complications increases with age, amongst the male population and the presence of chronic diseases such as arterial hypertension, cardiovascular disease, chronic lung disease, obesity and diabetes.

To avoid these complications, you need to start taking antiretroviral therapy immediately, if you have not already started it, and if possible, get vaccinated against COVID-19.

  • Wash your hands with warm water and soap for 20 seconds or more. If soap & water are not available use hand sanitising gel.
  • Avoid touching your face with your hands.
  • When sneezing or coughing, cover yourself with your elbow, not the palm of your hands.
  • Stay at home whenever possible. Physical isolation does not mean social isolation. Set up a home office and remain connected with friends and family using technology (such as Skype and Facetime).
  • If you have to leave your home (for example, to work, to buy food or visit a pharmacy) you should keep at least 1 meter distance from other people.
  • Wear a mask in public.
  • Avoid close contact with anyone who is displaying COVID-19 symptoms.
  • Ventilate the room more often.
  • Get vaccinated against COVID-19 if possible.
  • Make sure you’re vaccinated, in line with your local guidelines, for influenza and pneumococcus.
  • Ensure you have an adequate supply of antiretroviral therapy (minimum 1 month).

Leading scientific organisations are unanimous in the opinion that people living with HIV can and should be vaccinated against COVID-19, if possible. Vaccination prevents infection with COVID-19, and in case of illness, prevents the more severe cases of the disease and the development of complications. Moreover, in a number of European countries, people living with HIV have been included in priority vaccination groups.

Vaccines are safe for everyone, including people living with HIV. The main contra-indication is the presence of an allergy to the vaccine or its individual components.

It is fine to use any available vaccine. All approved coronavirus vaccines have passed the necessary stages of clinical trials for efficacy and safety. Moreover, these tests are ongoing, and every case of an adverse reaction is recorded, so that up-to-date information on their safety is available.

More information on vaccines, contra-indications and dosages can be found in the article with answers to the most frequently asked questions.

U većini slučajeva Kovid 19 se javlja u blagoj formi sličnoj prehladi. Ako osetite COVID-19 simptome, ostanite kod kuće i IZBEGAVAJTE bilo kakav kontakt sa ljudima (osim sa onima sa kojima već živite). Zamolite vaše prijatelje/komšije da vam kupe/donesu lekove i hranu. Kako ih ne biste inficirali, pitajte ih da vam ostave namirnice ispred vrata.

Koristite lekove koje kupujete bez recepta koje bi inače koristili kod prehlade da ublažite svoje simptome. Ne pijte antibiotike, oni nisu efikasni kod korona virusa. Ne eksperimentišite sa novim lekovima!

Ako se Vaši simptomi pogoršavaju i ako imate visoku temperaturu i teškoće pri disanju, kontaktirajte lokalni Korona virus kontakt centar ili vašeg doktora telefonskim putem. Oni će vas uputiti na dalje korake.

Da. Moguće je.

EMA (Evropska agencija za lekove) i FDA (Uprava za hranu i lekove u Sjedinjenim Američkim Državama) , oboje potvrđuju da trenutno ne postoje naučni dokazi koji bi uspostavljali vezu između ibuprofena i pogoršanja COVID-19.

Koristite lekove koje kupujete bez recepta koje bi inače koristili kod prehlade da ublažite svoje simptome. Ne pijte antibiotike, oni nisu efikasni kod korona virusa. Ne eksperimentišite sa novim lekovima!

According to recent studies, using the antiretroviral combination lopinavir / ritonavir (Kaletra) and other investigational drugs (remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine and interferon) has been shown to have little or no benefit for the treatment of COVID-19. When compared with standard clinical practice, they had little or no effect on overall mortality, onset of ventilation, and length of hospitalisation of patients.

Other uses for these drugs, such as for the treatment of patients outside of health care settings or for prophylaxis, are to be investigated in other clinical trials.

So far, only corticosteroids have been proven to be effective against severe and critical COVID-19. Trials are ongoing for the antibiotic azithromycin, the immunosuppressant tocilizumab, plasma from recovered patients and the REGN-CoV2 monoclonal antibody cocktail.

There is currently no evidence that antiretroviral therapy helps or even protects against coronavirus infection. People living with HIV should follow the same prevention methods as the general population, be vigilant and not think they have any additional protection. This is also not a reason to change the therapy regimen and stock up on drugs involved in experimental treatment.

According to recent reports, wearing a mask or face covering (medical and non-medical) can protect against infection by the virus, as well as provide protection to others if a person has respiratory symptoms.

Wearing a mask or face covering is especially recommended when it is impossible to ensure physical distance (at least 1 metre), for example, in public transport, in shops or other confined spaces and crowded places, as well as in areas with mass circulation of the virus and limited opportunities to take other preventive measures.

WHO recommends wearing medical masks for the following population groups:

  • Medical professionals;
  • All individuals with symptoms suggestive of possible COVID-19 infection, including those with mild symptoms;
  • Caregivers for patients with suspected COVID-19 or confirmed coronavirus infection outside health care facilities;
  • Persons over 60 years old;
  • Persons of any age with concomitant diseases.

It should be remembered that wearing a mask or face covering alone does not provide an adequate level of protection against infection. It is also necessary to maintain a distance of at least 1 metre from others, regularly wash or disinfect hands and avoid touching the face or mask with your hands.

If you find yourself in quarantine abroad, whilst on official work or studying, then you will most likely already have state or government insurance, giving you the right to receive free ARV medication. We recommend you go to the nearest clinic or doctor that deals with HIV. Everything remains confidential. Your data will not be transferred to any employer or authority. This confidential medical information will be respected at all times.

If you find yourself abroad as a tourist and do not have local state or government insurance, we recommend that you contact the nearest organization supporting people living with HIV or the local Red Cross.

If you are unable to contact the clinic/doctor or local organizations, please contact us:

If you have tried all possible ways to get ARV medication abroad, but could not achieve your goal, or you are in a place where there is no way to get medication (for example, in a remote region of the world or on an island), then we advise you to try to “stretch” your current stock of therapy for the longest possible time. There are studies (DODO, FOTO, BREATHER, etc.) that confirm that taking ARV therapy every other day is possible without loss of effectiveness and the risk of virus resistance. If, for example, you have a two-week stock of medicines, then you can easily “stretch” it for 4 weeks. By then, you will probably have the opportunity to fly back home.

If you have come to the end of your ARV medication, with no way to get more medication, then a break in treatment for up to 10-14 days will not pose a threat. The virus will not have time to recover during this time. If you are able to return home or get out of quarantine, to get a fresh supply of the same medication, during the ARV medication treatment break (up to 10-14 days), then you can continue taking the same medication without any restrictions. If the termination of medication has lasted for more than two weeks, then your viral load is likely to have increased. We recommend you contact your doctor if you arrive in your country of residence. Having a detectable viral load for some time is not critical and does not able to lead to complications. At the same time, it is extremely important to remember that during sex it is necessary to use condoms, since your viral load will no longer be undetectable.

Ukoliko imate zakazan sastanak sa lekarom u narednim danima ili nedeljama, obratite se lekaru unapred. Ako je vaše stanje stabilno, ne trebate lično da se sastajete sa lekarom i biće dovoljno samo da pokupite recept ili lek za određeni period. Zapamtite: bolnice su sada pretrpane, a lekari su preopterećeni. Razmislite o drugima i pokažite solidarnost i poštovanje!

Informacije za HIV specijaliste su takođe dostupne na stranici Clinical-COVID-19

Idite na Clinical-COVID-19

Obavestite nas ukoliko imate pitanja ili komentare vezane za HIV i COVID19 [email protected]