HIV and Tuberculosis Co-infection Should Be Treated Early
All newly diagnosed HIV patients should be screened for tuberculosis according to clinical review of HIV-related tuberculosis in the February 2017 issue of Microbiology Spectrum.
Clinicians should screen tuberculosis again when the patient’s CD4 counts fall below 200 cells/mm3 or after a new tuberculosis exposure. Tuberculin skin tests are recommended over interferon gamma release assays for patients likely to require repeated testing, researchers at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine state.
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) treatment are two effective prophylactic procedures to prevent progression to active tuberculosis in HIV patients. These methods are useful even in patients with high CD4 counts.
A few differences classify treatment of active tuberculosis in the presence of HIV. Patients with HIV+tuberculosis must receive daily therapy rather than alternative intermittent dosing regimens. Drug interactions between rifampin and certain antiretrovirals, such as ritonavir or raltegravir should also be considered.